当我们在准备每一个考试的时候,很多时候最喜欢研究的,就是这些考试本身的特点。不过对于托福和雅思考试来说,研究考试本身的特点的意义不大,因为这两个考试,已经完全是人的英语水平的能力测试,因此我们在准备托福和雅思作文的时候,最重要的是要了解对于英语本身,到底什么是好作文。当我们谈到英语好作文的时候,总是会听到一些套话,或者说很废话的东西,就是“文章切题,阐说充分,文章有说服力;段落组织有序,衔接紧密,过渡自然,有很强的逻辑性;段落内句与句连接顺畅,句式使用恰当,灵活,娴熟;用词确切,得体。文章中有个别语法拼写错误,但不影响内容表达。”貌似我们从小学就看到这些表述的方式,这些内容是如此的正确同时又无任何的可操作性,以至于我们总是在怀疑是不是ETS将来会找新闻联播来代言! 无老师接下来就会通过长篇连载,仔细剖析一下托福考试的这些标准的内在含义,同时根据中国考生特点,将重要性用星级标出,今天来讲的,就是对于绝大多数考友都十分重要的“有很强的逻辑性;段落内句与句连接顺畅”,也就是逻辑连接。★★★★★ 其实当我们想到逻辑连接的时候,最常想到的,就是每段话开始要用到First,Second,亦或者是last of all或者initially这样的连接词,说实话,这些是很重要的,但是他只是托福考试这张大大的拼图当中的一部分。逻辑连接就好像是一张椅子,每段开始的逻辑连接词,就是他的一条腿,没有不行,但是如果这张椅子只有一条腿也不行。 因此,无老师接下来会介绍这张椅子的第二条腿,就是句子与句子之间的连接词。如果说我们在每段一开始能用到的连接词很有限的话,那么句子与句子之间的连接词,我们可用的词汇就很广泛了,几乎可以将我们在网络上能找到的所有的连接词全都收在囊中。 真的是到处都是,因此,无老师随手搜了一个比较全的放在这里。 英语连接词 连接词的意义分类 表递进 moreover, in addition, what is more , furthermore, also, then, besides, etc. 表转折 however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, etc. 表层次 on the one hand, … on the other hand; first, … second, … finally; 表强调 firstly, … secondly, … finally …; first, … then … etc. 表强调 in fact, indeed, actually, as a matter of fact, obviously, apparently, 表结果 evidently, first of all, undoubtedly, without any shadow of doubt, etc. 表结尾 therefore, as a result, then, consequently, accordingly, thus, etc. 表例举 in a word, in conclusion, therefore, in short, to sum up, etc. 表强调 still, Indeed, apparently, oddly enough, of course, after all, significantly, interestingly, also, above all, surely, certainly, undoubtedly, in any case, anyway, above all, in fact, especially. Obviously, clearly. 表比较 like, similarly, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner, equally. 表对比 by contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, instead, but, conversely, different from, however, nevertheless, otherwise, whereas, unlike, yet, in contrast. 表列举 for example, for instance, such as, take …for example. Except (for), to illustrate. 表时间 later, next, then, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile, from now on, at the same time, for the time being, in the end, immediately, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, recently, soon, now and then, during, nowadays, since, lately, as soon as, afterwards, temporarily, earlier, now, after a while. first after a few days eventually at that time in the meantime meanwhile afterward from then on 表顺序 first, second, third, then, finally, to begin with, first of all, in the first place, last, next, above all, last but not the least, first and most important. 表可能 presumably, probably, perhaps. 表解释 in other words, in fact, as a matter of fact, that is, namely, in simpler terms. 表递进 What is more, in addition, and, besides, also, furthermore, too, moreover, furthermore, as well as, additionally, again. 表让步 although, after all, in spite of…, despite, even if, even though, though, admittedly, whatever may happen. 表转折 however, rather than, instead of, but, yet, on the other hand, unfortunately. whereas 表原因 for this reason, due to, thanks to, because, because of, as, since, owing to. 表结果 as a result, thus, hence, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, as consequence. 表总结 on the whole, in conclusion, in a word, to sum up, in brief, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, in short. 其他类型连接词Mostly, occasionally, currently, naturally, mainly, exactly, evidently, frankly, commonly, for this purpose, to a large extent, for most of us, in many cases, in this case, 表空间 near to far from in the front of beside behind to the right to the left on the other side of 表举例 for example to name a few, say , such as 表递进 in addition furthermore what ’ s more what ’ s worse 表对比 whereas while as opposed to by contrast by comparison 表示时间与频率的词汇 :in general, every, some, after, on the whole, usually, most, at other times, in most cases, frequently, main, finally, as a rule, rarely, before, meanwhile. 表示附加的词 :additionally, as well as, just as, again, along with, also, further, furthermore, likewise, in the same manner, in the same way, in addition to, 引出例子 :for example, namely, for instance, as an example, that is 表示转折 :although, instead, rather than, but, nevertheless, though, however, on the other hand, otherwise 得出结论 :all in all, in consequence, in brief, as a result, the point is, in conclusion, therefore, hence, in sum. 表示增加的过渡词 : also , and , and then , too , in addition , furthermore , moreover , again , on top of that , another , first second third 等。 表示时间顺序的过渡词: now , then , before , after , afterwards , earlier , later , immediately , soon , next , in a few days , gradually , suddenly , finally 等。 表示空间顺序的过渡词: near ( to ), far ( from ), in front of , behind , beside , beyond , above , below , to the right ( left ), around , outside 等。 表示比较的过渡词: in the same way , just like , just as 等。 表示对照的过渡词 : but , still , yet , however , on the other hand , on the contrary , in spite of , even though 等。 表示结 果 和 原 因 的 过 渡 词: because , since , so , as a result , therefore , hence , thus , otherwise 等。 表示目的的过渡词: for this reason , for this purpose , so that 等。 表示强调的过渡词 : in fact , indeed , surely , necessarily , certainly , without any doubt , truly , to repeat , above all , most important 等。表示解释说明的过渡词: for example , in fact , in this case , for actually 等。 表示总结的过渡词 : finally , at last , in conclusion , as I have shown , in other word , in brief , in short , in general , on the whole , as has been stated 等 增补 (Addition) in addition, furthermore, again, also, besides, moreover, what ’ s more, similarly, next, finally. 比较 (Comparison) in the same way, likewise, similarly, equally, in comparison, just as 对照 (Contrast) whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, however, nevertheless, unlike, even though, on the contrary, while 因果 (Cause and effect) because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result (of), accordingly, hence, so, thus 强调 (Emphasis) certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most important 6. 让步 (Concession) although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true…. 7. 例证 (Exemplification) for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of illustration. 总结 (Conclusion) to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nut shell, in summary 推断 (Inference) therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise 时间和空间 (Time and space) afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyond, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of 表示罗列增加(递进) first, second, third, firstly, secondly, thirdly, first, then / next, after that / next, finally / last / last but not least, and equally important, on (the) one hand … , on the other hand … , besides / what ’ s more / in addition (to sth.) / furthermore / moreover / another / also / too, plus, as well, especially / particularly / in particular 表示时间顺序 now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, at first, at the beginning (of sth.), to begin with, to start withlater, next, finally, immediately, soon, suddenly = all of a sudden, at that moment, as soon as, the moment … , form now on, from then on, gradually at the same time = meanwhile, till, not … until, before, after, when, while, as, during 表示解释说明 now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, in fact / as a matter of fact / actually, frankly speaking, in other words, in simpler terms, that is to say, to put it differently 表示转折关系 but, however, while, though, yet, still, nevertheless, or, otherwise, on the contrary / on the other hand, in spite of … / despite the fact that … , even though, except (for), instead, in stead of, of course, after all, even so 表示并列关系 or, and, also, too, not only … but also … , as well as, both … and … , either … or … , neither … nor … 表示因果关系 原因: because, because of = thanks to … = due to … = owing to … , since = now that, as, for, 结果: so, therefore, thus, hence, as a result (of), on this / that account, so … that, such … that, in this way 表示条件关系 as (so) long as, on condition that, if, unless 表示让步关系 though , although , as , even if , even though , whether … or … , however , whoever, whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where) 表示举例 for example, for instance, such as … , like … , take … for example 表示比较 be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with (to) … , just like 表示目的 for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order that, in order to, so as to, 表示强调 indeed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously, above all 表示概括归纳 in a word, in short, in brief, in summary, on the whole, generally speaking, in general, in my opinion, as far as I am concerned, as what has been mentioned, to sum up, to conclude, in conclusion 表示 “ 尤有进者 ” 的意思: Again, also, then, besides, further, furthermore, moreover, next, in addition 等,如 : ① Jason teaches diligently. Besides, he writes a lot. ② English is a useful language. For one thing, it is an official language in the UN. Then, it is widely used in business, science and technology. 表示 “ 反意见 ” : But, however, still, yet, after all, for all that, in spite of, on thecontrary, on the other hand 等,如: ③ Jim is intelligent but lazy. ④ Singapore is not a big country. On the contrary, it is very small. 表示 “ 困果关系 ” : Therefore, so, hence, thus, accordingly, consequently, as a result 等,如: ⑤ Some people are over-ambitious. As a result, they are usually unhappy. ⑥ Tom did not work hard; hence, he failed. 表示 “ 比较关系 ” : Likewise, similarly, in a like manner 等,如: ⑦ You cannot writes without a pen. Likewise, you cannot cook without rice. ⑧ No one is allowed to speak Mandarin in an English class. Similarly, no one is allowed to speak English in a Mandarin class. 表示 “ 举例示范 ” : For example, in other words, for instance, that is 等,如: ⑨ There are some common errors in his composition. For instance, it is wrong to use “he” to replace “the queen”. 表示 “ 结束 ” : To sum up, in brief, in short, on the whole, to conclude 等,如: ⑩ Some say Singapore is a nice place to live in. Others say it is not so nice. It is too competitive. In short, some like Singapore; some do not. 并列关系 and, furthermore, more than that, also, likewise, moreover, in addition, what is more, for instance, for example 转折关系 although, however, on the contrary, but, in spite of, nevertheless, yet, otherwise, despite 顺序关系 first, second, third, and so on, then, after, before, next 因果关系 as a result, for, thus, because, for this reason, so, therefore, as, since, consequently, on account of 归纳关系 as a result, finally, therefore, accordingly, in short, thus, consequently, in conclusion, so, in brief, in a word 几个用得比较多的句子: As far as I am concerned, the advantages of … outweigh its disadvantages. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of … is undeniable. To sum up/ In general/ On the whole/ In brief/ In short/ In a word, it is true that … bring about both positive and negative results. But we can try our best to reduce the negative influence to the least extent. Obviously, in every aspect, … This diagram unfolds a clear comparison between … and … As to the other three, though the growth rates were not so high, they were indeed remarkable and impressive.表层进 \ 表举例 \ 表解释 \ 表总结 \ 表强调 \ 表让步 \ 表比较 \ 表转折 \ 表时间 \ 表层进 first, firstly to begin with second, secondly to start with third, thirdly what ’ s more also and then and equally important besides in addition further in the first place still furthermore last last but not the least next besides too moreover finally 2. 表举例 for example for instance to illustrate as an illustration after all 3. 表解释 as a matter of fact frankly speaking in this case namely in other words 4. 表总结 in summary in a word in brief in conclusion to conclude in fact indeed in short in other words of course it is true specially namely in all that is to summarize thus as has been said altogether in other words finally in simpler terms in particular that is on the whole to put it differently therefore 5. 表强调 of course indeed above all most important emphasis certainly in fact 6. 表让步 still nevertheless in spite of all the same even so after all concession granted naturallyof course 7. 表比较 in comparison likewise similarly equally however likewise in the same way 8. 表转折 by contrast although at the same time but in contrast nevertheless notwithstanding on the contrary on the other hand otherwise regardless still though yet despite the fact that even so even though for all that however in spite of instead 9. 表时间 after a while afterward again also and then as long as at la st at length at that time before besides earlier eventually finally formerly further furthermore in addition in the first place in the past last lately meanwhile moreover next now presently second shortly simultaneously since so far soon still subsequently then thereafter too until until now when 总结关系过渡词语 in general, to some extent, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, in brief, on the whole 比较对比关系过渡词语similarly, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless 列举关系过渡词语 as a case in point, such as, first of all, to begin with, furthermore, besides, in addition, for one thing, for another 因果关系过渡词语 because (of), since, for, owing to, thanks to, as a result of, consequently, for the reason that, therefore, hence 让步关系过渡词语 although, even though, in spite of, despite 强调关系过渡词语 surely, obviously, particularly, in deed, needless to say, most important of all 递进关系 in addition, also, moreover, besides , what’s more 时间顺序 immediately, meanwhile, presently, shortly, since, soon, temporarily, while 方式手段 as, as if, the way , by 目的关系 so that, lest , in order that 1) 表层次 : First ,firstly, to begin with, further, in the first place second, secondly, to start with, still, furthermore third, thirdly, what is more, last, last but not least also, and then, next, besides and equally important too moreover besides in addition finally 2) 表转折; by contrast although though yet at the same time but despite the fact that even so in contrast nevertheless even though for all that notwithstanding on the contrary however in spite of on the other hand otherwise instead still regardless 3) 表因果; therefore consequently because of for the reason thus hence due to owing to so accordingly thanks to on this account since as on that account in this way for as a result as a consequence 4 )表让步: still nevertheless concession granted naturally in spite of all the same of course despite even so after all5) 表递近: furthermore moreover likewise what is more besides also not only…but also… too in addition 6) 表举例: for example for instance for one thing that is to illustrate as an illustration a case in point 7) 表解释: as a matter of fact frankly speaking in this case namely in other words 8) 表总结: in summary in a word thus as has been said in brief in conclusion altogether in other words to conclude in fact finally in simpler terms indeed in short in particular that is in other words of course on the whole to put it differently namely in all therefore to summarize 表并列补充关系 : what is more, besides, also, as well, moreover, furthermore, in addition 表转折对比关系 : but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, in contrast to, despite, in spite of, whereas, un? 鄄 like, nevertheless, not only…but also, here…there, years ago…today, this…that, the former…the latter, then…now, the first…whereas the second, once…now, on the one hand…on the other , some…others 表因果关系 : since, as, because ( of ) , for, so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that 表条件关系 : if, on the condition ( that ) , as long as, unless, or else 表时间关系 : when, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning/year/century, after an interval, now, after, presently, later, after, toward, somewhat later, finally, at last, all of a sudden 表特定的顺序关系 : above all, first of all, firstly, first, secondly, the , next, finally, in the end, at last 表换一种方式表达 : in other words, that is to say, to put it another way 表举例说明 : for instance, for example, like, such as 表陈述事实 : in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth 表总结 : on the whole, in short, all in all, general, in a word, in conclusion, in closing, in summary 原文网址:http://wenku.baidu.com/view/16c8136ea98271fe910ef9cc.html 但是这里有一个很重要的问题是,我们往往没有注意到一个问题就是,我们在写作文的时候,其实是在用中文翻译成英语。但是英语和中文不一样,中文是文字内部本身含有逻辑,但没有连接词。英文则是很大程度上,通过连接词来展现或者说标志出里面的逻辑关系,因此中翻英后,我们就缺少了连接词。 因此这就出现了一个很有意思的现象,就是我们看英文文章,会发现文章内部,60%-90%都有各种形式的连接词!比如TPO的这段文章(连接词无老师用大写标出)Cases IN WHICH many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time are called mass extinctions. THERE was one SUCH event AT the end of the Cretaceous period (around 70 million years ago). There was ANOTHER, EVEN larger, mass extinction at the end of the Permian period (around 250 million years ago). THE Permian event has attracted much less attention than OTHER mass extinctions BECAUSE mostly unfamiliar species perished at THAT time.但是中文由于本身就缺少连接词,因此我们翻译过来的文章同样缺少连接词!这就出现了一个连接词缺失的问题!因此这就要求,我们在平时写作文的时候,写完之后要重新多看几遍自己的作文,补全这些连接词。 但这并没有说完,其实从刚才那段文章就可以看出,像BECAUSE这样的连接词其实只能占到连接词的一小部分。换句话说,也就是刚才无老师列出的一长串连接词仅是会用到的逻辑连接的四条腿的其中一条,而不是全部4条。 在行文过程中还有一些代词,本身就是具有连接词的作用的,比如说前面这段话里面的THE和SUCH,这些词很小,但是本身就起到了对于前文的指代,因此,也属连接词里面的一类,只是我们平时太常见了,以至于,我们没有注意到他们的存在。但是其实这些小词的使用,可以帮助我们极好的提升文章的逻辑性,而且还不漏声色,不会有任何的违和感。因此,代词也是逻辑连接里面的很重要的一条腿。无老师特别提示,这一条腿看上去很小,其实它最常用! 现在我们已经看了行文过程中逻辑连接的三条腿,分别是,段落开始的连接词,句子与句子的连接词和代词。 貌似这就已经全了,但是其实不然,还有一部分所占的比例不是特别高的连接方式,就是意思上的链接。比如这一段SOME of the proposed mechanisms required a very brief period during which all extinctions suddenly took place; OTHER mechanisms would be more likely to have taken place more gradually, over an extended period, or at different times on different continents.显然,后面的OTHER,是专门针对与前面的SOME而提的,只有前面“一部分人”说了什么,才有后面的“另一部分人”提出新的观点。显然这两个词的使用,起到了前后呼应的作用。 再比如Some hypotheses fail to account for simultaneous EXTINCTIONS on land and in the seas. EACH mass EXTINCTION may have had a different CAUSE. EVIDENCE points to hunting by humans and habitat destruction as the likely causes for the current mass extinction.这里面前一句话提到了“灭绝”,那么后面提到了“每一次灭绝”自然就属于前面的“灭绝”里面的一部分。然后本句话又提到了“原因”,后面就马上提到了“证据”,“证据”的作用显然就是来支持或者验证“原因”的。 这就是通过意思上或者内容上本身的逻辑性,将文章的内容串联起来。这就是最后一条腿。 逻辑连接,决定这文章的整体脉络,写作过程中一定要多加注意!可以说在英语里,一句话平均下来至少要有一个逻辑连接,哪怕有2-3个逻辑连接也很正常,看看你的作文,够了么?